Con la participación de científicos de la Universidad de Guadalajara, el Laboratorio Nacional HAWC DESVELA el cielo visto en rayos gamma ultra-energéticos

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Con apenas un año de operaciones y sin actualizaciones, superando ya los resultados de su predecesor, el observatorio Milagro que operó durante 8 años, el Laboratorio Nacional HAWC ofrece resultados de impacto mundial, así como observaciones inéditas y sin precedentes para la Astronomía de los Rayos Gamma.

Este laboratorio Nacional cuenta con un instrumento de frontera mundial instalado en Sierra Negra, Puebla, México, que demuestra estar listo para competir y realizar ciencia de siglo XXI y de impacto internacional, para poner a México en la élite y la vanguardia de la Astronomía de Rayos Gamma.

La Universidad de Guadalajara participa y colabora activamente en el proyecto, siendo líder en una de las tareas de instrumentación: La Red de Cables del Observatorio.

 


El laboratorio nacional HAWC está compuesto de un observatorio de segunda generación que a diferencia del esquema clásico de lentes y espejos, utiliza el AGUA como herramienta para estudiar el universo mas energético y violento, el que no esta regido por estrellas, si no por agujeros negros (primordiales, estelares y supermasivos en galaxias), pulsares, remanentes de Supernova, y destellos de rayos gamma. HAWC observa la luz mas energética del Universo, la de los rayos gamma que tienen millones de millones la energía de la luz que ven nuestros ojos.

Esta compuesto por 300 detectores de 7.3 metros de diámetro por 4.5 metros de alto que están llenos de 180,000 litros de agua ultra-limpia, cada uno instrumentado adecuadamente para detectar la “Luz Cherenkov” proveniente de partículas atómicas cargadas que cruzan por el agua, y que se generaron y propagaron en la atmósfera terrestre cuando un rayo gamma proveniente del cosmos es absorbido por la misma. HAWC esta instalado en Sierra Negra Puebla, a una altura de 4100 metros sobre el nivel del mar y fue construido por una colaboración binacional México-Estados Unidos que involucra una treintena de instituciones de ambos países, la Universidad de Guadalajara entre ellas. Se espera este en operaciones continuas y sin interrupciones por 10 años a partir de su inauguración (Marzo de 2015).

 

 

 

Por la importancia y relevancia científica, el 18 de Abril de 2016 en la reunión de la American Physical Society (APS), Utah, EUA, y el 21 de Abril de 2016 en ruedas de prensas en la UNAM y el INAOE, la colaboración HAWC muestra los resultados obtenidos por el observatorio HAWC a un año de haber sido inaugurado (Marzo de 2015) y estar completamente operacional.

De manera simultanea, este 21 de Abril, se realizo una sesión informativa en el IAM con presencia del grupo de investigadores que participa en HAWC liderado por el Dr. Eduardo de la Fuente Acosta, que se desempeña como el Jefe Nacional de la Red de Cables del Laboratorio Nacional HAWC, y es profesor investigador del Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, departamento de Física, del CUCEI. Los otros investigadores en el presidium fueron los Dres. Guillermo García Torales y Jorge luis Flores del departamento de electrónica, y el Dr. José Luis García Luna del departamento de Física del CUCEI.

Lo relevante es que HAWC muestra el mapa actual más detallado del Universo en rayos gamma ultra energéticos, como resultado de un año de operación, cubriendo 2/3 partes de la bóveda celeste. El mapa es único e inédito, porque revela la vía láctea con un detalle sin precedentes, es el mapa actual que ofrece la mayor cantidad de información de las mas altas energías, detecta 40 fuentes emisoras de rayos gamma en el plano de la galaxia, de las cuales el 25% son detecciones nuevas que no habían sido identificadas anteriormente. Aqui el mapa:

 

 


Además ofrece información inédita sobre fuentes conocidas. Por ejemplo en la región del Cisne, donde se había detectado una fuente rayos gamma, ahora resulta que son 3 en vez de una:

 

 
También como parte de su monitoreo del Universo, HAWC el 7 de Abril de 2016 a través de un telegrama astronómico, alertó a la comunidad científica internacional de unas ráfagas provenientes de la galaxia Markarian 501, una galaxia que contiene un agujero negro supermasivo en el centro.

 

HAWC tiene una sinergia impresionante y “acuerdos de colaboración” con otros observatorios y experimentos de punta como el satélite de rayos gamma (de baja-mediana energía: millones a miles de millones la energía de la luz que ven nuestros ojos) NASA-FERMI, el experimento LIGO, y el observatorio de neutrinos ICECUBE. Por ejemplo , en el caso de ondas gravitacionales, los datos de HAWC están listos y disponibles para corroborar una posible detección de ondas gravitacionales si la fuente cae en el campo de visión de HAWC. En el caso de NASA-FERMI, si se combinan los mapas de ambos observatorios, se tiene la visión actual en este momento (2015), del universo en rayos gamma (combinando rayos gamma de baja-mediana y alta energía):

Como futuro, cabe mencionar que a inicios del 2016, se empezaron los esfuerzos para actualizar HAWC. Esta mejora consiste en la construcción de 320 detectores de Cherenkov 10 veces más pequeños que los originales, pero ubicados en un área cuatro veces mayor alrededor de HAWC. Con esta extensión se cuadruplicará la capacidad de detección de rayos gamma ultra energéticos de HAWC y el instrumento se hará 4 veces mas poderoso.

La Universidad de Guadalajara continuará trabajando como hasta ahorita en colaboración con la Universidad de Utah, la UNAM, el INAOE, la Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, el Laboratorio Nacional de los Álamos, y el Instituto Politécnico Nacional en la instalación y monitoreo de la red de cables, buscando además ser protagonista también en la parte de ciencia.

 

Para mas información:

 

 

 

Responsable: 
Dr. Eduardo de la Fuente Acosta
Editor: 
Andrés Rodríguez
Fecha Creación: 
22 de abril de 2016

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